Microbiology is a field of science dedicated to the study of microscopic organisms that are invisible to the naked eye. These organisms, collectively referred to as microbes, include bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa, and algae.

Bacteria are single-celled organisms with a relatively simple cell structure compared to other forms of life. Their genetic material is contained within a single loop of DNA, housed in a region called the nucleoid.

Viruses are the smallest of all microbes and are unique in that they can only replicate within the cells of other living organisms, known as host cells. They consist of a core of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protective protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an additional outer envelope. Viruses attach to host cells, penetrate them, and hijack their cellular machinery to replicate.

Fungi can be single-celled or complex multicellular organisms and include species that cause diseases in humans, such as athlete’s foot, ringworm, and thrush.

The microbiology department conducts various tests on bodily fluids to detect and diagnose microbial infections. These tests include:

  1. Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) Stain for sputum
  2. AFB (Acid Fast Bacilli) Culture and Sensitivity with 20 drugs
  3. Ascitic fluid microscopy
  4. Blood Culture and Sensitivity
  5. CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) Microscopy
  6. Fungus culture and sensitivity
  7. PAP Smear
  8. Pericardial fluid microscopy
  9. Peritoneal fluid microscopy
  10. Pleural fluid microscopy
  11. Pus culture and sensitivity
  12. Pus culture for TB (Tuberculosis)
  13. Semen Analysis
  14. Semen culture and sensitivity
  15. Sputum culture and sensitivity
  16. Sputum culture for TB
  17. Sputum routine and microscopy
  18. Stool culture and sensitivity
  19. Stool Microscopy
  20. Synovial fluid microscopy
  21. Tissue culture and sensitivity
  22. Tissue culture for TB
  23. Urine culture and sensitivity
  24. Urine microscopy

These tests help identify the presence of microorganisms in bodily fluids, determine the causative agents of infections, and guide appropriate treatment strategies. The microbiology department plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases, contributing to patient care and public health.